and Deciduous Forest Trees
   of Southern Ontario
Carolinian Trees are indicated in red.

Ash (Fraxinus)
Black Ash
Blue Ash
Pumpkin Ash
Red Ash
White Ash

Basswood (Tilia)
American Basswood

Beech (Fagus)
American Beech


Birch (Betula)
Cherry Birch 
Yellow Birch

Blue-Beech (Carpinus)
Blue Beech

Cherry (Prunus)

Black Cherry
Choke Cherry
Pin Cherry

Chestnut (Castanea)
American Chestnut

Crabapple (Malus)

Wild Crabapple


Dogwood (Cornus)
Eastern Flowering Dogwood

Elm (Ulmus)
Rock Elm
Slippery Elm
White Elm

Gum (Nyssa)

Black Gum

Hackberry (Celtis)
Dwarf Hackberry
Northern Hackberry

Hemlock (Tsuga)
Eastern Hemlock

Hickory (Carya)
Bitternut Hickory
Red (Pignut) Hickory Shagbark Hickory
Shellbark Hickory

Hop Hornbeam (Ostrya)
Hop Hornbeam  

Hop Tree (Ptelea)
Hop Tree

Kentucky Coffee Tree (Gymnocladus)
Kentucky Coffee Tree

Locust (Gleditsia)
Honey Locust

Magnolia (Magnolia)
Cucumber Tree

Maple (Acer)
Black Maple
Freeman's Maple
Red Maple
Silver Maple
Sugar Maple

Mulberry (Morus)
Red Mulberry

Ohio Buckeye (Aesculus)
Ohio Buckeye


Oaks, Red (Quercus)
Black Oak
Hill's Oak
Pin Oak
Red Oak
Shumard Oak

Oaks, White (Quercus)
Bur Oak
Chinquapin Oak
Dwarf Chinquapin Oak
Swamp White Oak
White Oak

Paw Paw (Asimina)
Paw Paw

Pine (Pinus)
Eastern White Pine


Poplar (Populus)

Balsam Poplar
Eastern Cottonwood Largetooth Aspen
 Trembling Aspen

Red Cedar (Juniperus)
Eastern Red Cedar

Redbud (Cercis)

Sassafras (Sassafras)


Serviceberry (Amelanchier)
Downy Serviceberry

Sycamore (Platanus)
American Sycamore

Tamarack (Larix)

Tulip Tree (Liriodendron)
Tulip Tree

Walnut (Juglans)
Black Walnut

White Cedar (Thuja)
Eastern White Cedar

Exclusions: Hawthorns, Willows, Manitoba Maple, Mountain Maple, Plums, Black Spruce (found only in limited areas) and tall shrubs. White Birch, White Spruce and Red Pine are frequently planted in the Carolinian Zone, but do not occur naturally.


All photography by A. Sawyer and family, Long Point, Ontario, Canada.

Latest update: October 1, 2018

Your comments are welcome!


Farrar, J. L. (1995). Trees in Canada. Markham, Ontario: Fitzhenry & Whiteside.

Waldron, G. (2003). Trees of the Carolinian forest: A guide to species, their ecology and uses. Erin, Ontario: Boston Mills Press.

Bissonnette, D. (2009). The Native Seed Identification & Cultivation Guide for Southern Ontario. Essex, Ontario: The Naturalized Habitat Network of Essex County & Windsor.

Government of Canada. (n.d.) COSEWIC (Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada). Retrieved June 24, 2015, from

Eric Meier. (2008). The Wood Database. Retrieved October 08, 2015, from

University of Guelph. (n.d.). Arboretum. Retrieved June 24, 2015, from

United States Forest Service. (1990). Silvics Manuals-volume 1 and volume 2. Retrieved August 30, 2015, from

Iowa State University Forestry Extension, (n.d.). Tree Index of Common Trees & Shrubs of Iowa. Retrieved October 29, 2015, from

Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service. (2015). Trees. Retrieved March 24, 2017, from

Wojtech, M. (2011). Bark: a field guide to trees of the northeast. Hanover: University Press of New England.

Henry, M. & Quinby, P. (2009). Ontario's Old Growth Forests. Markham, Ontario: Fitzhenry & Whiteside.