References and Recommended Reading

Reference Books

The very best tree book:
Farrar, J. L. (1995). Trees in Canada. Markham, Ontario: Fitzhenry & Whiteside.

An excellent book about the Carolinian Zone:
This is the very best specialized book on everything Carolinian.

Waldron, G. (2003). Trees of the Carolinian forest: A guide to species, their ecology and uses. Erin, Ontario: Boston Mills Press.

A great identification guide for native seeds:
Bissonnette, D. (2009). The Native Seed Identification & Cultivation Guide for Southern Ontario. Essex, Ontario: The Naturalized Habitat Network of Essex County & Windsor.

A helpful guide to trees based on bark, but is missing some species of the Carolinian Zone:
Wojtech, M. (2011). Bark: a field guide to trees of the northeast. Hanover: University Press of New England.

A great guide to Point Pelee National Park and the Carolinian Zone:
Waldron, Gerry. (2004). Trees of Point Pelee National Park and the Carolinian Zone. Leamington, Ontario: The Friends of Point Pelee.

A lovely reference book ... so many oak species!
Stein, J. D., Binion, D., & Acciavatti, R. E. (2003). Field guide to native oak species of eastern North America. Morgantown, WV: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team.

An excellent reference book for the Paw Paw tree:
Bissonnette, D. (2012). The Pawpaw Grower's Manual for Ontario. Essex, Ontario: The Naturalized Habitat Network of Essex County and Windsor.

A good reference guide to all trees of Canada and the United States:
Sibley, D. (2009). The Sibley guide to trees. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

An entire book dedicated to the variations in bark of the Red Maple:
Hobson, S.S. (2015). The Many Faces of a Most Common Tree: Extraordinary Diversity in Native Red Maple. North Charleston, SC. CreateSpace Independent Publishing.


Information about endangered or threatened trees in Canada:
Government of Canada. (n.d.) COSEWIC (Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada). Retrieved June 24, 2015, from

Pictures and information about different types of wood:
Eric Meier. (2008). The Wood Database. Retrieved October 08, 2015, from

A basic guide to trees, but an amazing place to visit! If you haven't visited the Arboretum, you should ... a wonderful place anytime of the year!

University of Guelph. (n.d.). Arboretum. Retrieved June 24, 2015, from

It's old and American, but has excellent information:
United States Forest Service. (1990). Silvics Manuals-volume 1 and volume 2. Retrieved  February 09, 2020, from

A good website for some hard-to-find facts: 
Iowa State University Forestry Extension, (n.d.). Tree Index of Common Trees & Shrubs of Iowa. Retrieved October 29, 2015, from

This website has excellent photos of flowers and seeds:
Friends of the Wild Flower Garden. (2020). Plant Index by Name. Retrieved April 11, 2020, from https://www.

Recommended YouTube Videos

The Lost Forests of Eastern New England - Eastern Old Growth is an excellent YouTube documentary. Although it is American based, the forest "story" told is similar to Ontario's forest story.

Eastern White Pine: The Tree Rooted in American History, is a good documentary. Although it is American based, but the story is similar in Canada.

Cathedral: The Fight to Save the Hemlocks of Cook Forest is a good documentary about the Wooly Adelgid which is decimating Hemlock trees. Cook Forest is a beautiful old growth Hemlock Forest in Pennsylvania.

Greatest Forest Loss in History is an excellent video describing the Chestnut Tree and the culture of Appalachia.

The Magic Maples of New England is an excellent video on the different species of Maple, all of which grow in the Carolinian Zone, except for Striped Maple.

Barkin' Up The Right Tree is a collection of informal videos on trees in Ohio, which also grow in Southern Ontario! These are excellent videos to help you with tree identification.

Tree of the Week (UK ... University of Kentucky!!) is a great collection of formal slideshow videos on the trees of Kentucky, many of which grow in Southern Ontario.

Recommended Reading

A history of reforestation in Ontario and the life of Edmund Zavitz:
Bacher, J. (2011). Two Billion Trees and Counting: The Legacy of Edmund Zavitz. Guelph, Ontario. Dundurn.

A most enjoyable read:
Moore, A. (2015). Pawpaw: In Search of America's Forgotten Fruit. Vermont: Chelsea Green Publishing.

The absolutely complete coverage of the use of wood throughout history:
Green, H. (2006). Wood: Craft, Culture, History. New York. Penquin.

An excellent book featuring old growth forests in Ontario:
Henry, M. & Quinby, P. (2009). Ontario's Old Growth Forests. Markham, Ontario: Fitzhenry & Whiteside.

A very enlightening book that explains why Americans love trees and the history of trees in the  United States.
Jonnes, J. (2016). Urban forests: A natural history of trees and people in the American cityscape. New York. Viking.

A History of St. Williams Forestry Station:
Barrett, H. B., & Port Rowan/South Waisingham Heritage Association. (2008). They had a dream : a history of the St. Williams Forestry Station. Port Rowan, On: Port Rowan / South Waisingham Heritage Association.

An interesting book about the use of Hickory wood in furniture:
Kylloe, R. R. (2006). Hickory furniture. Salt Lake City: Gibbs Smith.

A very informative and interesting book about Oaks and how they were used in different cultures:
Logan, W. B. (2006). Oak: The frame of civilization. W. W. Norton & Company.

An excellent book about ancient White Cedars:
Kelly, P. E., & Larson, D. W. (2007). The last stand: a journey through the ancient cliff-face forest of the Niagara Escarpment. Toronto: Natural Heritage Books.

A fun read, but not specifically about trees of Ontario:
Drori, Jonathan. (2018). Around the World in 80 Trees. London, United Kingdom: Laurence King Publishing.