Shumard Oak
Quercus shumardii

Location in Ontario
Shumard Oak, a rare Carolinian Tree, is found in Essex County and the Niagara region. It is also known as Swamp Red Oak. Shumard Oak is found along streams and in wet locations.

COSEWIC (Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada) Status: Shumard Oak is identified as a species of Special Concern in Canada. This is due to its limited range and loss of habitat.

COSEWIC: Shumard Oak


Shumard Oak, University of Guelph Arboretum
 

Genus Quercus
The ten Oaks of Southern Ontario are divided into two categories. Red Oaks have lobed leaves which are pointed and acorns (seeds) that develop over two years. White Oaks have leaves with rounded lobes or simple leaves with sharp teeth and acorns (seeds) that develop over one year. Acorns are a one-seeded nut with a tough shell, and a scaly cap which attaches to the tree. Often, Oak leaves stay on the tree over winter. Oak leaves on the ground are slow to decay, as this is a survival strategy to prevent the growth of other plants nearby. Oaks are monoecious with male (pollen) flowers and female (seed) flowers on the same tree. Oak is a favoured wood for flooring and furniture.


8 Oaks of University of Guelph Arboretum L to R: Shumard, Hill's, Bur, Chinquapin, Dwarf Chinquapin, Red, Swamp White, White. Missing: Black Oak and Pin Oak
 
In the Landscape
Shumard Oak is a large tree, growing to 35 metres in height. It can live to be over 400 years old! It has nice form and good fall colour. Shumard Oak prefers a wet location. Leaves do not decay readily and persist under the tree along with acorns.


A huge Shumard Oak in Tecumseh Park, Chatham, designated a Heritage Tree.

Leaves
Leaves have 7-11 pointed lobes. Leaves turn red in the fall.
Bark
The bark is dark gray and deeply furrowed.
Flowers
Shumard Oak is monoecious with male (pollen) flowers and female (seed) flowers on the same tree. Flowers are small, with pollen flowers in catkins, while seed flowers occur in small clusters. Flowers appear with the leaves and are wind pollinated.
Fruit
Shumard Oak produces acorns every 2 to 4 years after 25 years of growth. It takes two years for the acorns to mature.

Wood
Shumard Oak wood is hard and heavy and has a beautiful grain. It is sold as Red Oak and is used for furniture and flooring.
Specific gravity: 0.56
Janka Hardness: 1290 lb
Wood Comparison Chart


A variety of Shumard Oak leaves

Link to United States Forest Service Silvics Manual for Shumard Oak.

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