Carolinian
and Deciduous Forest Trees

of Southern Ontario

Shumard Oak
Quercus Shumardii

Location in Ontario:
Shumard Oak, a Carolinian Tree, is found in Essex County and the Niagara region. It is also known as Swamp Red Oak.

COSEWIC (Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada) Status: Shumard Oak is identified as a species of Special Concern in Canada. This is due to its limited range and loss of habitat.



Shumard Oak, University of Guelph Arboretum

Genus Quercus: Genus Quercus: The ten Oaks of Southern Ontario are divided into two categories. Red Oaks have lobed leaves which are pointed and White Oaks have leaves with rounded lobes or simple leaves with sharp teeth. Often, Oak leaves stay on the tree over winter. Oak leaves on the ground are slow to decay, as this is a survival strategy to prevent the growth of other plants nearby. Oaks are monoecious with male (pollen) flowers and female (seed) flowers on the same tree. Oak seeds are acorns. Oak wood is  favoured for flooring and furniture.


8 Oaks of University of Guelph Arboretum
L to R: Shumard, Hill's, Bur, Chinquapin, Dwarf Chinquapin, Red, Swamp White, White. Missing: Black Oak and Pin Oak


Oak Savanna, Turkey Point Provincial Park

Habitat: Shumard Oak is found along streams and in wet locations.

Landscape Use: Shumard Oak is a rare tree in Canada. It is a large tree with good fall colour. It prefers a wet location. Leaves do not decay readily and persist under the tree along with acorns.

Leaves: Leaves have 7-11 pointed lobes.

FALL COLOUR WATCH: red 

Flowers: Oaks are monoecious with male (pollen) flowers and female (seed) flowers on the same tree. Flowers are small. Pollen flowers are in catkins, while seed flowers occur in small clusters.

Fruit: Oak seeds are acorns; a one-seeded nut with a tough shell. On top of the acorn is a scaly cup which attaches to the tree. Acorns develop during the summer. Shumard Oak produces acorns every 2 to 4 years after 25 years of growth.

Bark: The bark is dark gray and deeply furrowed.

Size: Shumard Oak is a large tree, growing to 35 metres in height.

Wood: Oak wood is hard and heavy and has a beautiful grain. It is used for furniture and flooring.
Specific gravity: 0.56
Janka Hardness: 1290 lb
Wood Comparison Chart


A huge Shumard Oak in Tecumseh Park, Chatham, designated a Heritage Tree.

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