Eastern White Pine
Pinus strobus

Location in Ontario
Eastern White Pine is found throughout the Deciduous Forest Region, and northward.  It will grow on a variety of soils, but does best on rich, moist soil.


A cut above the rest, the very tall Eastern White Pine towers above the other trees in the forest
 

Genus Pinus
This evergreen genus is divided into two groups; soft and hard pine. The leaves are scales or needles. Pollen cones are catkin-like. Seed cones are large and woody. In Southern Ontario, Eastern White Pine, a soft pine, is the only species that is native to the Carolinian Zone of Southern Ontario.

In the Landscape
Eastern White Pine is a tall tree growing up to 45 metres and reaching 200 years of age. Occasionally White Pines grow to be larger and older.  This fast growing, large tree makes an excellent evergreen specimen, with its long, soft needles, and windswept appearance as it matures.

TREE FACT: Eastern White Pine is the provincial tree of Ontario. It is also the tallest tree in Ontario. The record tree is 47 metres tall and located in Arnprior along the Ottawa River.


Beautiful White Pine showing typical bluish green needles, Rock Point Provincial Park


The windswept form of Eastern White Pine, Norfolk County
 

Leaves
This coniferous tree has leaves that are needles in bundles of five. The needles are flexible and bluish-green in colour.
Bark
The bark is grayish-brown with broad scaly ridges and furrows.
Cones
The seeds are found in long, cylindrical cones that are yellowish-green to light brown when mature. Production of cones begins between 5 and 10 years of age, with good seed crops every 3 to 5 years.
   


Eastern White Pine seedlings, St. Williams Nursery and Ecology Centre

Wood
The wood is soft and moderately strong.
Specific gravity: 0.35
Janka Hardness: 380 lb
Wood Comparison Chart

The wood is used for doors, mouldings, trim and furniture.

TREE FACT: White Pine is one of the most valuable trees in Ontario; in the past as masts for ships, and as lumber. Giant stands of old growth White Pine once filled the landscape, but 99% were cut down, leaving few old growth trees today.  

Here is a good YouTube documentary about Eastern White Pine, although it is American based, but the story is similar in Canada.


Large White Pine, Backus Woods, Norfolk County 

Link to United States Forest Service Silvics Manual for Eastern White Pine. 

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