Carolinian
and Deciduous Forest Trees

of Southern Ontario

Comparison Chart
of Different Woods

Specific Gravity: A ratio of the density of something compared to the density of water. For wood values, a moisture content of 12% is used.

Janka Hardness: A scale used to measure harness in pounds (lb) of force. It is the force required to sink a steel ball into wood with 12% moisture content.

In the chart below, specific gravity is listed first, then Janka Hardness.

Balsam Poplar 0.34, 300 lb
White Cedar 0.29, 320 lab
Ohio Buckeye 0.33, 350 lb
Trembling Aspen 0.38, 350 lb
Eastern White Pine 0.35, 380 lb
Largetooth Aspen 0.39, 420 lb
Basswood 0.32, 410 lb
Eastern Cottonwood 0.40, 430 lb
Butternut 0.38, 490 lb
Eastern Hemlock 0.40, 500 lb
Tulip Tree 0.42, 540 lb
Chestnut 0.43, 540 lb
Tamarack 0.53, 590 lb
Sassafras 0.46, 630 lb
Silver Maple 0.47, 700 lb
Cucumber Tree 0.48, 700 lb
Sycamore 0.49, 770 lb
Black Gum 0.50, 810 lb
Paw Paw 0.52, 900 lb
White Elm 0.64, 830 lb
Black Ash 0.49, 850 lb
Slippery Elm 0.53, 860 lb
Northern Hackberry 0.53, 880 lb
Red Cedar 0.47, 900 lb
Black Cherry 0.50, 950 lb
Red Maple 0.54, 950 lb
Pumpkin Ash 0.52, 990 lb
Black Walnut 0.55, 1010 lb
Black Maple 0.57, 1180 lb
Red Ash 0.56, 1200 lb
Shumard Oak 0.56, 1290 lb
Black Oak 0.61, 1210 lb
Yellow Birch 0.62, 1260 lb
Red Oak 0.63, 1290 lb
Pin Oak 0.63, 1290 lb
Blue Ash 0.64, 1290 lb
Beech 0.64, 1300 lb
White Ash 0.60, 1320 lb
Rock Elm 0.63, 1320 lb
White Oak 0.68, 1360 lb
Bur Oak 0.64, 1370 lb
American Beech 0.64, 1380 lb
Kentucky Coffee Tree 0.60, 1390 lb
Sugar Maple 0.63, 1450 lb
Cherry Birch 0.65, 1470 lb
Bitternut Hickory 0.66, 1500 lb
Honey Locust 0.65, 1580 lb
Red Mulberry 0.69, 1680 lb
Swamp White Oak 0.72, 1620 lb
Blue Beech 0.70, 1780 lb
Shellbark Hickory 0.69, 1810 lb
Hop Hornbeam 0.70, 1860 lb
Crabapple 0.70, unknown
Shagbark Hickory 0.72, 1880 lb
Red (Pignut) Hickory 0.75, 2140 lb
Eastern Flowering Dogwood
0.73, 2150 lb

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